Author Topic: Water Storage Methodology  (Read 10995 times)

Offline donaldj

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Water Storage Methodology
« on: September 29, 2009, 08:42:56 AM »
What do you all suggest for long term water storage?

I went to one web site where they derisively chided those people using 2 liter bottles or soda bottles. These sites were selling 5 gallon containers and 55 gallon drums. I was skeptical if there was a downside to using well cleaned soda bottles or not. After all, they were trying to make money on their "solution".

For the short term, until I'm educated, I've been saving 2 liter bottles (at MI deposit rates, these are $0.10 each...) rinsing them out, filling with a soap/water mix and letting them sit overnight. Once that's done, I rinse them 3x and fill with water, cap, and store.  These are being stored in my cool basement that sees absolutely minimal light and NO daylight. To store these, I scored some of the 2 slot x 4 slot plastic stacking "crates" made for 2 liters, and store them 2 crates high. This, the bottles don't see hardly any loading. I plan to store about 60 gallons worth, meaning about 120 bottles total. I have ample room to do this.

What I read about these bottles was they were "unsanitary", broke down over time in light, and were structurally inferior.  I believe I have addressed all these concerns, and am wondering what I might have missed?

Does stored water "go bad" after time (stored in the manner I indicated)?
Are there dangers in using these bottles I am not familiar with?


Thanks,
Don

Offline HelenWheels

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Re: Water Storage Methodology
« Reply #1 on: September 29, 2009, 09:08:10 AM »
...

What I read about these bottles was they were "unsanitary", broke down over time in light, and were structurally inferior.  I believe I have addressed all these concerns, and am wondering what I might have missed?


From what I have read, the burst pressure of a typical 2-ltr soda bottle is somewhere in the area of 190psi. That doesn't sound very inferior to me.

And according to the World Health Organization, they are used for water also:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_water_disinfection

Solar water disinfection
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SODIS application in Indonesia

Solar water disinfection, also known as SODIS[1] is a method of disinfecting water using only sunlight and plastic PET bottles. SODIS is a cheap and effective method for decentralized water treatment, usually applied at the household level and is recommended by the World Health Organization as a viable method for household water treatment and safe storage.[2] SODIS is already applied in numerous developing countries.
Contents

    * 1 Principle
    * 2 Guidelines for the application at household level
    * 3 Applications
    * 4 Cautions
    * 5 Health impact, diarrhea reduction
    * 6 Research and development
    * 7 Worldwide application
    * 8 See also
    * 9 References
    * 10 External links

[edit] Principle

Exposure to sunlight has been shown to deactivate diarrhea-causing organisms in polluted drinking water. Three effects of solar radiation are believed to contribute to the inactivation of pathogenic organisms:

    * UV-A interferes directly with the metabolism and destroys cell structures of bacteria.
    * UV-A (wavelength 320-400 nm) reacts with oxygen dissolved in the water and produces highly reactive forms of oxygen (oxygen free radicals and hydrogen peroxides), that are believed to also damage pathogens.
    * Infrared radiation heats the water. If the water temperatures rises above 50°C, the disinfection process is three times faster.

At a water temperature of about 30°C (86°F), a threshold solar radiation intensity of at least 500 W/m2 (all spectral light) is required for about 5 hours for SODIS to be efficient. This dose contains energy of 555 Wh/m2 in the range of UV-A and violet light, 350 nm-450 nm, corresponding to about 6 hours of mid-latitude (European) midday summer sunshine.

At water temperatures higher than 45°C (113°F), synergetic effects of UV radiation and temperature further enhance the disinfection efficiency.
[edit] Guidelines for the application at household level

Pictograms SODIS.jpg

    * Water from contaminated sources are filled into transparent water bottles. For oxygen saturation, bottles can be filled three quarters, then shaken for 20 seconds (with the cap on), then filled completely. Highly turbid water (turbidity higher than 30 NTU) must be filtered prior to exposure to the sunlight.
    * Filled bottles are then exposed to the sun. Better temperature effects can be achieved if bottles are placed on a corrugated roof as compared to thatched roofs.
    * The treated water can be consumed. The risk of re-contamination can be minimized if water is stored in the bottles. The water should be consumed directly from the bottle or poured into clean drinking cups. Re-filling and storage in other containers increases the risk of contamination.

Suggested Treatment Schedule[3] Weather Conditions    Minimum Treatment Duration
sunny    6 hours
50% cloudy    6 hours
50-100% cloudy    2 days
continuous rainfall    unsatisfactory performance, use rainwater harvesting
[edit] Applications

SODIS is an effective method for treating water where fuel or cookers are unavailable or prohibitively expensive. Even where fuel is available, SODIS is a more economical and environmentally friendly option. The application of SODIS is limited if enough bottles are not available, or if the water is highly turbid.

In theory, the method could be used in disaster relief or refugee camps. However, supplying bottles may be more difficult than providing equivalent disinfecting tablets containing chlorine, bromine, or iodine. Additionally, in some circumstances, it may be difficult to guarantee that the water will be left in the sun for the necessary time.

Other methods for household water treatment and safe storage exist, e.g. chlorination, different filtration procedures or flocculation/disinfection. The selection of the adequate method should be based on the criteria of effectiveness, the co-occurrence of other types of pollution (turbidity, chemical pollutants), treatment costs, labor input and convenience, and the user’s preference.
[edit] Cautions

If the water bottles are not left in the sun for the proper length of time, the water may not be safe to drink and could cause illness. If the sunlight is less strong, due to overcast weather or a less sunny climate, a longer exposure time in the sun is necessary.

The following issues should also be considered:

    * Bottle material: Some glass or PVC materials may prevent ultraviolet light from reaching the water.[4] Commercially available bottles made of PET are recommended. The handling is much more convenient in the case of PET bottles. Polycarbonate blocks all UVA and UVB rays, and therefore should not be used.

    * Aging of plastic bottles: SODIS efficiency depends on the physical condition of the plastic bottles, with scratches and other signs of wear reducing the efficiency of SODIS. Heavily scratched or old, blind bottles should be replaced.

    * Shape of containers: the intensity of the UV radiation decreases rapidly with increasing water depth. At a water depth of 10 cm and moderate turbidity of 26 NTU, UV-A radiation is reduced to 50%. PET soft drink bottles are often easily available and thus most practical for the SODIS application.

    * Oxygen: Sunlight produces highly reactive forms of oxygen (oxygen free radicals and hydrogen peroxides) in the water. These reactive molecules contribute in the destruction process of the microorganisms. Under normal conditions (rivers, creeks, wells, ponds, tap) water contains sufficient oxygen (more than 3 mg Oxygen per litre) and does not have to be aerated before the application of SODIS.

    * Leaching of bottle material: There has been some concern over the question whether plastic drinking containers can release chemicals or toxic components into water, a process possibly accelerated by heat. The Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research have examined the diffusion of adipates and phthalates (DEHA and DEHP) from new and reused PET-bottles in the water during solar exposure. The levels of concentrations found in the water after a solar exposure of 17 hours in 60°C water were far below WHO guidelines for drinking water and in the same magnitude as the concentrations of phthalate and adipate generally found in high quality tap water.
      Concerns about the general use of PET-bottles were also expressed after a report published by researchers from the University of Heidelberg on antimony being released from PET-bottles for soft drinks and mineral water stored over several months in supermarkets. However, the antimony concentrations found in the bottles are orders of magnitude below WHO[5] and national guidelines for antimony concentrations in drinking water.[6][7][8] Furthermore, SODIS water is not stored over such extended periods in the bottles.

[edit] Health impact, diarrhea reduction

It has been shown that the SODIS method (and other methods of household water treatment) can very effectively remove pathogenic contamination from the water. However, infectious diseases are also transmitted through other pathways, i.e. due to a general lack of sanitation and hygiene. Studies on the reduction of diarrhea among SODIS users show reduction values of 30-80%.[9][10][11][12][13]
[edit] Research and development

The effectiveness of the SODIS was first discovered by Professor Aftim Acra at the American University of Beirut in the early 1980s [3]. Substantial follow-up research was conducted by the research groups of Martin Wegelin at the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) and Dr Kevin McGuigan at the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Clinical control trials were pioneered by Professor Ronan Conroy of the RCSI team in collaboration with Dr T Michael Elmore-Meegan.

Currently, a joint research project on SODIS is implemented by the following institutions:

    * Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI), Ireland (coordination)
    * University of Ulster (UU), United Kingdom
    * CSIR Environmentek, South Africa, Eawag, Switzerland
    * The Institute of Water and Sanitation Development (IWSD), Zimbabwe
    * Plataforma Solar de Almería (CIEMAT-PSA), Spain
    * University of Leicester (UL), United Kingdom
    * The International Commission for the Relief of Suffering & Starvation (ICROSS), Kenya
    * University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), Spain
    * Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag), Switzerland

The project has embarked on a multi-country study including study areas in Zimbabwe, South Africa and Kenya.

Other developments include a continuous flow disinfection unit [14] and solar disinfection with titanium dioxide film over glass cylinders which prevents the bacterial regrowth of coliforms after SODIS.[15] Research has shown that a number of low-cost additives are capable of accelerating SODIS and that additives might make SODIS more rapid and effective in both sunny and cloudy weather, developments that could help make the technology more effective and acceptable to users.[16] Another study showed that natural coagulants (seeds of five natural plant species--Vigna unguiculata, Phaseolus mungo, Glycine max, Pisum sativam, and Arachis hypogea--were evaluated for the removal of turbidity), were as effective as commercial alum and even superior for clarification because the optimum dosage was low. [17]
[edit] Worldwide application

The Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag), through the Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (Sandec), coordinates SODIS promotion projects in 33 countries including Bhutan, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, DR Congo, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Laos, Malawi, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Perú, Philippines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Togo, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Contact addresses and case studies of the projects coordinated by the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) are available at sodis.ch.

Worldwide application of SODIS in projects coordinated by Eawag

SODIS projects are funded by, among others, the SOLAQUA Foundation ([18]), several Lions Clubs, Rotary Clubs, Migros, and the Michel Comte Water Foundation.

SODIS has also been applied in several communities in Brazil, one of them being Prainha do Canto Verde north of Fortaleza. There, the villagers have been purifying their water with the SODIS method. It is quite successful, especially since the temperature during the day can go beyond the 40°C (100°F) and there is a limited amount of shade.

Offline donaldj

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Re: Water Storage Methodology
« Reply #2 on: September 29, 2009, 09:21:29 AM »
I was hoping for a more thorough post with more detail.   :P    Seriously though, thanks! This was a topic I read when I first started prepping but forgot about in the "initial info deluge".

So, store it this way, and leave it in the sun for 6 hours before drinking....   To me, this is a major benefit to this method.

The water I stored was clean. I opted for tap water for the florination rather than using filtered water.

I have a ton of Nalgene bottles and 20 oz bottles for "daily duty".

Still curious as to what others do, too.

Don

Offline ncjeeper

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Re: Water Storage Methodology
« Reply #3 on: September 29, 2009, 09:28:55 AM »
I'm doing the same thing. I have mine stored in a closet.

Offline bartsdad

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Re: Water Storage Methodology
« Reply #4 on: September 29, 2009, 09:51:02 AM »
Every time I go to Walmart I pick-up and fill one of those 7gallon water containers in the camping section. I'm just getting started. I like the 7 gallon size because they are still portable.

I also rinse, fill and freeze as many empty juice bottles as I have room for. The frozen water helps freezer efficiency and helps protect frozen goods in the event of a power outage., 

Offline HelenWheels

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Re: Water Storage Methodology
« Reply #5 on: September 29, 2009, 10:06:35 AM »
Sorry, Donaldj, for the verbose posting...

I don't drink a lot of pop but a couple of the guys at work do, so they bring me their pop bottles. I take 'em, wash 'em and fill 'em. I have about a dozen so far and another half dozen or so to wash out and fill.

I also have 2 5-gal rigid containers, a 6-gal container (for the car) and a 5-gal collapsible.

Offline donaldj

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Re: Water Storage Methodology
« Reply #6 on: September 29, 2009, 10:13:57 AM »
Helen I was teasing about that. It was awesome info!

My wife and I host all my buddies about 1-2/month for a poker or game night, and they all bring various soda. We keep the 2 liter bottles and use them for this.

I'm on the fence about buying rigid containers when I have these for free. Although, a few collapsible 5 gallon types might be wise...

I have about 4 gallons capacity in various Platypus and MSR Dromedary bags (used for backpacking), too.

Don

Offline fratermus

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Re: Water Storage Methodology
« Reply #7 on: October 04, 2009, 03:27:37 PM »
2l bottles are fine for water, unless they originally held root beer.  That smell  never comes out.  

If you are worried about sanitization, use no-rinse sanitizers like homebrewers do:  iodophor, starsan, or a pH-adjusted bleach solution.

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Re: Water Storage Methodology
« Reply #8 on: October 04, 2009, 03:51:53 PM »
I have 83-3qt bottles of Ozarka in the heavy plastic bottles and 74-2 Lr bottles stored.  Every time I go to the grocery store I try to pick up a bottle or two.  It adds up fast but doesn't hurt the budget all at once that way.  Even with this much I figure it will only last maybe a week for 4 adults and 2 dogs.  I am collecting rain water and figure I can purify that if I have to.  Right now I'm using it for the veggies.
I figure that the water in canned veggies and juice will add to the water amounts we have.  Also I buy broth in cans and veggie juice to cook with.  That way maybe the water will stretch. 

Offline fred.greek

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Re: Water Storage Methodology
« Reply #9 on: October 05, 2009, 08:48:51 PM »
Have been using 1 & 2 liter soda bottles for a long time.

I've left a full 2 liter bottle in a corner of the year for up to 5 years... I would not have wanted to drink it, but I could not see any problem with the bottle breaking down.

In contrast, the translucent milk containers are crumbling in a little over a week.

Our storage is of course inside, out of the light and out of the way, and constantly growing...

MOVING is going to be a nuisance.



Offline Morning Sunshine

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Re: Water Storage Methodology
« Reply #10 on: October 06, 2009, 08:25:48 AM »
I have my water storage in a few places, but no where near what I need to have.
1) juice bottles.  we do not drink pop, and I don't think I know anyone who does..... (although next time we have a church social, I am planning to claim all the 2L bottles from the sprite-sherbet-juice punch bowl, or the root beer floats)

I figure that the water in canned veggies and juice will add to the water amounts we have.  Also I buy broth in cans and veggie juice to cook with.  That way maybe the water will stretch. 

2) homemade-and-bottled broths, canned veggies and fruits.  No, this will not count for cleaning or drinking water, but for cooking - definite bonus.  extra nutrients and flavor.  great for rice and beans, or add pasta and some chicken bits, and you have chicken noodle soup.  If all else fails, use the peach juice from your canned peaches to make oatmeal - already sweetened and flavored.

another method I have used in the past, but not since we moved from city water to well water.  I am still on the fence about storing my well-water.  But your canning jars.  They take up equal amount of space empty or full, so when I have used a bottle of peaches, I wash the bottle, seal and ring; fill with clean water and replace the old seal and ring; store in the basement like always.  no, it is not sterile and sealed tight, but it would work.  Come canning season, empty in the garden and fill with food.  Repeat.

Offline donaldj

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Re: Water Storage Methodology
« Reply #11 on: October 06, 2009, 08:33:42 AM »
I've left a full 2 liter bottle in a corner of the year for up to 5 years... I would not have wanted to drink it, but I could not see any problem with the bottle breaking down.

What was wrong? Was the water stagnant or something?  More details here would be very beneficial as to this methods viability.

My concern was having to label all these bottles and empty/refill on a regular basis. The more I get, the more daunting this task becomes.  Using the SODIS methos described helps my concerns a lot, and I can always boil it or filter it, but if there is little fear of contamination then I'd like to know this as well.


Thanks for all the posts, guys!
Don


Offline ChEng

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Re: Water Storage Methodology
« Reply #12 on: December 02, 2010, 05:27:56 PM »
...
I've left a full 2 liter bottle in a corner of the year for up to 5 years... I would not have wanted to drink it, but I could not see any problem with the bottle breaking down.
...

Fred,

If you used city tap water (chlorinated) or equivalent, there should not have been any troubles with the water in that bottle.  What was wrong with the water, that you said "I would not have wanted to drink it"?  Did it look bad?  Was it not purified (chlorinated) to begin with?  "Enquiring" minds want to know. :D

I have had multi-year old water, and other than a little flat tasting, it was good.  The flat taste can be gotten rid of, by pouring back and forth between two containers to re-oxygenate the water.

Offline Nicodemus

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Re: Water Storage Methodology
« Reply #13 on: December 02, 2010, 05:49:48 PM »
I believe the only thing I've found to be superior about large drums versus 2 liter bottles is convenience if they have to be moved, but that is only because I have a hand truck and I don't have to go up any stairs. The 55 gallon drum can weigh up to 440 pounds. The way I look at it is that if anything goes wrong in the worse possible way with either of the containers, I can clean up 2 liters or 55 gallons.

It may be a case of "time will tell" though. I had a couple of 7 year old 2 liter bottles at my last place that seemed to be fine, but I got rid of all my stored water before the move, so most of my bottles are now new.

In any case, 2 liter bottles are cheap and you can start with those and move on to other storage methods later if you feel the need.

Offline Mastoo

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Re: Water Storage Methodology
« Reply #14 on: December 02, 2010, 05:50:43 PM »
I was thinking Jack should cover this in a "Baby Steps For Beginners" show.  I wasn't sure either so I opted for a couple of the 30 gallon things filled from the tap with water preservative added, maybe cleaning and refilling them after 5 years?  Also count on filtering the water if I ever use it - Belt-and-suspenders.

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Re: Water Storage Methodology
« Reply #15 on: December 02, 2010, 06:16:46 PM »
2-liters here.  I wash them, fill them, make sure the caps are on good and tight, then lay them on the side in the floor of the closet.  Stack 'em 4 rows high and lay a board on top.  I have water and a shelf.  Just nothing too heavy on the shelf.  I change out the water once a year when planting time comes.  I water the garden with the old water.  It is safe to drink, it just gets stale.

Offline PAGUY

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Re: Water Storage Methodology
« Reply #16 on: December 02, 2010, 06:39:15 PM »
This is a topic that is often discussed on here.  To save you a little time here are a few links from good sources.  Read up and be safe. http://www.nationalterroralert.com/safewater/
http://www.fema.gov/plan/prepare/water.shtm
http://www.bt.cdc.gov/disasters/earthquakes/food.asp
http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/emergency/water.html


Offline drinkin

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Re: Water Storage Methodology
« Reply #17 on: December 04, 2010, 12:45:08 PM »
Jack has discussed this before, most recently in Episode 552.

Offline Omega Man

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Re: Water Storage Methodology
« Reply #18 on: December 23, 2010, 01:02:10 AM »
So, store it this way, and leave it in the sun for 6 hours before drinking....   To me, this is a major benefit to this method.

The water I stored was clean. I opted for tap water for the florination rather than using filtered water.

I have a ton of Nalgene bottles and 20 oz bottles for "daily duty".

Still curious as to what others do, too.

Don

My water storage includes the use of 2 liter soda bottles.  When they are empty, I rinse them out repeatedly, fill them with tap water, add 5 drops of chlorine bleach (Brand Name: Clorox, unscented [the scented kinds are toxic] active ingredient sodium hypochlorite) to each bottle for water purification to kill any micro-organisms that might have found their way into the container (probably not necessary, but it gives me an extra piece of mind), attached a date label and store it in a dark closet.

For those unfamiliar with the use of bleach for water purification here are a few links:

http://www.csgnetwork.com/h2oemergencypurifycalc.html

http://www.thefarm.org/charities/i4at/surv/bleach.htm

http://www.doh.wa.gov/phepr/handbook/purify.htm

http://www.rense.com/general2/watrpur.htm

When I remove the 2 liter bottles for use, I also would use the sunlight exposure method (again, probably not necessary, but yet again it costs me nothing and provides an additional piece of mind).

I also have a dozen cases of SAM'S CHOICE bottled water sitting in a corner.  Its cheap, sterile, plentiful and...well...why not have some factory bottled water?

I also have an extra jug of Clorox bleach exclusively for water purification, as well as a water filter pitcher with a number of extra filters.

If I have prior warning of an emergency crisis before it hits, my plans also include emptying out my plastic storage crates (which are currently packed with canned goods and foil packages of dried rice) and lining the plastic bins with two clean, fresh trash bags (just in case one bag has a puncture) and filling the plastic tubs with water before the crisis hits.  I figure extra water can't hurt

Filling the bath tub, and any extra glasses, jars in the kitchen with water wouldn't hurt either.

Additionally, water isn't the only beverage that I store.  Under the concept of "comfort foods", I also decided to store several cases of canned soft drinks, chocolate Yoo Hoo, beer, large plastic bottles of Cranberry Juice and some "juice boxes" of various flavors of fruit juice.
« Last Edit: December 23, 2010, 01:07:46 AM by Omega Man »

Offline Perfesser

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Re: Water Storage Methodology
« Reply #19 on: December 23, 2010, 10:36:05 AM »
I've posted this in a couple of threads already.
Cornelius kegs folks.
5 gallons, stainless steel, nice valves, easy cleanout. Last forever - buy quality once.
E-bay- sometimes less than $20 a piece but supplies are getting tighter.

http://shop.ebay.com/items/?_nkw=cornelius+kegs

Av8er1

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Re: Water Storage Methodology
« Reply #20 on: May 14, 2013, 12:32:32 AM »
What about a swimming pool? During the months it is in use I would be concerned about pool chemicals. Could these be alleviated by running the water through a Berkey? Just curious if this would be an option?
Don

Offline r_w

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Re: Water Storage Methodology
« Reply #21 on: May 14, 2013, 07:30:06 AM »
What do you all suggest for long term water storage?

I went to one web site where they derisively chided those people using 2 liter bottles or soda bottles. These sites were selling 5 gallon containers and 55 gallon drums. I was skeptical if there was a downside to using well cleaned soda bottles or not. After all, they were trying to make money on their "solution".

For the short term, until I'm educated, I've been saving 2 liter bottles (at MI deposit rates, these are $0.10 each...) rinsing them out, filling with a soap/water mix and letting them sit overnight. Once that's done, I rinse them 3x and fill with water, cap, and store.  These are being stored in my cool basement that sees absolutely minimal light and NO daylight. To store these, I scored some of the 2 slot x 4 slot plastic stacking "crates" made for 2 liters, and store them 2 crates high. This, the bottles don't see hardly any loading. I plan to store about 60 gallons worth, meaning about 120 bottles total. I have ample room to do this.

What I read about these bottles was they were "unsanitary", broke down over time in light, and were structurally inferior.  I believe I have addressed all these concerns, and am wondering what I might have missed?

Does stored water "go bad" after time (stored in the manner I indicated)?
Are there dangers in using these bottles I am not familiar with?


Thanks,
Don

Dig a lake/pond  ;)

There are a lot of ways to skin this, but nothing wrong w/ using 2 liter bottles (other than the MI deposit). 

Still, it is hard to do better than $.20/gallon for any storage container unless you go big.  I have a couple 1500 gallon tanks in my basement :)  Poor man's cistern, I think they cost me about 23 cents/gallon.  I have seen 55 gallon drums for about the same price/gallon.  But to get something portable you are doing it pretty cheap. 

Offline Erigorn

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Re: Water Storage Methodology
« Reply #22 on: May 14, 2013, 07:49:45 AM »
I use a mixture of storage containers.
110 gallons in 55 gallon drums
100 gallons in 5 gallon containers
15 gallons in standard bottled water
4 gallons in cleaned 2 litter bottles. More to come here.
This gives me a combination of portable water and large containers. Jack says the 2 liter bottles are fine. They are made to store pretty harsh liquids between the sugars and acids and the pressure from carbonation. Milk jugs are not recommended because the are not add strong and break down fast.

These containers can also be used to gather water from a lake river train etc

Finally, for purification I have redundancy of a filter, chlorine in the form of pool shock, the 2 liter bottles can be used for the SODIS method described above, and can boil it if need be either on propane stoves, solar ovens or a rocket stove.

I'd like to get a better filter like a berkey, mor 2 liters stored and a pond someday.

Offline strensk

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Re: Water Storage Methodology
« Reply #23 on: June 05, 2013, 03:53:22 PM »
I have found that the gallon size Gatorade bottles work well. Just have to clean them out well so you can get rid of any residual taste or smell. The reason I like them are:

They have large mouths, the plastic is fairly thick and durable, the convenient carry handle on top.